Gold ore dressing equipment process flow

The amount of gold in ore is so low that in order to extract gold, the ore needs to be crushed and ground and preenriched or separated from the ore by means of beneficiation. Gold is a mineral used in more re-election and flotation, gravity separation in placer gold production occupies an important position, the flotation method is widely used rock gold mining beneficiation methods, about 80% of our country rock gold mine with gold using this method, processing technology and equipment have been greatly improved.
(1) Crushing and grinding
According to the survey, Chinese gold concentrator mostly uses jaw crusher for coarse crushing, standard cone crusher for medium crushing, and short head cone crusher and roll crusher for fine crushing. Medium and small gold concentrator mostly adopts two-stage and one-closed crushing process, and large gold concentrator adopts three-stage and one-closed crushing process.
In order to improve the beneficiation production capacity and tap the potential of equipment, the ore crushing process has been reformed to improve the utilization coefficient of the mill. The main measures taken are to implement more crushing and less grinding, and reduce the granularity of the ore into the grinding.
(2) Re-election
Gravity separation is widely used in rock gold mines, mostly as an auxiliary process to recover coarse gold in grinding circuit, creating favorable conditions for flotation and cyanidation process, improving beneficiation index, increasing the total recovery rate of gold, and playing a positive role in increasing production and reducing cost. In Shandong Province, there are more than 10 beneficiation plants using the re-beneficiation process, the average total recovery rate can be increased by 2% ~ 3%, the economic benefits of the enterprise is good, according to incomplete statistics, can get millions of yuan of profit every year. Henan, Hunan, Inner Mongolia and other provinces (regions) have also achieved good results, the main equipment used are chute, shaker, jig and short cone cyclone. From the view of most gold mines in China, the floating-heavy combined process (gravity separation for flotation tailings) is suitable for use. In the future, the stage grinding stage separation process should be promoted vigorously, and the mineral processing principle of good recovery and early recovery should be advocated.
(3) Flotation
According to the survey, about 80% of China's rock gold mines using flotation method for gold, the output of concentrate sent to non-ferrous smelter processing. Due to the increasing development of cyanidation gold extraction and enterprises in order to improve economic benefits and reduce the loss of concentrate transportation, the product structure has undergone great changes in recent years. Most of them adopt local treatment (of course, due to the contradiction between the selection and smelting and the pricing problems, forcing the mine to deal with the flotation process) to promote the great development of flotation process, which occupies a quite important position in gold production. There are usually two kinds of flotation processes: preferential flotation and mixed flotation. In recent years, new progress has been made in process modification and reagent addition system, and the flotation recovery rate has been improved obviously. According to more than 40 gold processing plants in China, the flotation process index survey results show that the flotation recovery rate of sulfide ore is 90%, and a few are as high as 95% ~ 97%. The recovery rate of oxidized ore is about 75%. Some reach 80% ~ 85%. In recent years, the innovation of flotation process and scientific research results are many, the effect is obvious. The process of stage grinding flotation, combined process of gravity and flotation are the main trends in the development of flotation technology. For example, Xiangxi gold mine adopts the combined process of heavy and floating to carry out stage grinding stage separation, and obtains a better index, and the recovery rate increases by more than 6%. Jiaojia gold mine, Wulong gold mine, Wenyu gold mine, Dongchuang gold mine and so on have also achieved certain results. Another example is Xincheng Gold Mine. The original process is direct flotation of raw ore. Due to high mud content (the ore itself has high mud content, and the cement filling strength of mining tailings is not enough, some mud and sand are brought into the mine), the mineral processing index declines continuously. After examination and test, the sand separation process was adopted, the recovery rate was increased from 93.05% to 95.01%, the concentrate grade was increased from 135g/t to 140g/t, and the production was stabilized. As the grade of raw ore declines year by year, the flotation index of Jinchangyu Gold mine decreases. Through the cooperative experimental study with Shenyang Gold Institute and other units, the branch flotation process is adopted to improve the flotation index and concentrate grade. This scientific research achievement (in January 1988, the gold Corporation passed the technical appraisal), for the flotation process reform got a new enlightenment. Of course, flotation method and other methods are not omnipotent, can not be effective for all gold-bearing ore, mainly to consider the ore properties, in the selection of process flow, need to carry out many aspects of the demonstration and test.
In recent years, in order to improve the separation effect, while improving the technology, a lot of improvement and research have been made on the system of drug adding and drug mixing, and new progress has been made in the realization of automatic control of drug adding.
(4) Chemical beneficiation - water metallurgy gold extraction process
1. Amalgamation of mercury for gold extraction
Amalgamation gold extraction process is an ancient gold extraction process, which is simple and economical.
It is suitable for recovery of coarse monomer gold. Many gold mines still use this method. With the development of gold production and scientific and technological progress, the amalgamation process of gold extraction has been improved and perfected. Due to the increasingly strict requirements of environmental protection, mercury mixing operations have been canceled in some mines and replaced by gold extraction processes such as re-election, flotation and cyanidation.
In gold production, amalgamation of mercury for gold extraction still plays an important role, and there are some examples at home and abroad. At present, this process has been applied in many gold mines in Zhangjiakou, Hebei, Erdaogou, Liaoning, Jiapigou, Yinan, Shandong, etc. In Erdaogou gold mine, Liaoning Province, the original single flotation process was changed to mercury-flotation combined process according to the ore properties. The total recovery rate increased by 7.81%(mercury-mixed recovery reached 64.6%), tailings grade decreased from 0.74g/t to 0.32g/t, and the annual benefit was 1.58 million yuan. The key of amalgamation gold extraction technology is how to take protective measures to eliminate mercury poisoning.
2. Cyanidation gold extraction process
Cyanide gold extraction is the main method of extracting gold from ore or concentrate. The process of cyanide gold extraction includes cyanide leaching, washing and filtration of leaching pulp, extraction of gold from cyanide liquid or cyanide pulp and smelting of finished products. The existing cyanide plants in Chinese gold mines basically adopt two kinds of gold extraction process. One is the so-called conventional cyanide gold extraction process (CCD method and CCF method), which is continuous countercurrent washing by thickener and gold recovery by zinc powder replacement precipitation; the other is non-filtration washing. The unfiltered cyanide carbon pulp was directly adsorbed by activated carbon to recover gold from cyanide pulp (CIP and CIL).
Conventional cyanide gold extraction process can be divided into two kinds according to the different materials treated: one is to deal with gold concentrate flotation or treatment of mercury mixture, gravity separation tailings cyanide plant. Most of the mines using this technology are large state - owned mines. Such as Hebei Jinchang Yu; Wulong, Liaoning; Yangzaiyu, Henan; Zhaoyuan, Xincheng, Jiaojia and Sanshandao gold mines in Shandong Province. The other is to treat argillaceous oxidized ore, using the whole mud stirring cyanide gold extraction plant. Such as the Jilin Trench; Tuanjie Valley, Heilongjiang Province; Anhui Xinqiao gold and silver mine.
As early as the 1930s, China began to use cyanide process for gold extraction. During 1936 ~ 1938, gold was extracted by cyanide-zinc powder replacement process in Taiwan Jinguashi gold mine, with an annual output of 150,000 taels of gold.
After the 1960s, in order to adapt to the development of national economy, the production of mineral gold was vigorously developed. In some mines, intermittent mechanical stirring cyanidation process and continuous stirring cyanidation process were used to replace the percolating cyanidation process. In 1967, the continuous mechanical stirring cyanidation process was first realized in Lingshan and Linglong Gold Processing plants of Zhaoyuan Gold Mine in Shandong Province, and the cyanidation process increased from 70% to 93.23%. Since then, the continuous mechanical stirring cyanidation process has been rapidly popularized in major gold mines in China. In 1970, Jinchangyu Gold Mine and Wulong Gold Mine cyanide plants were built and put into operation successively in 1977. After that, a number of mechanical stirring cyanide plants were built and put into operation successively in China, and the cyanide gold extraction process entered a new stage of development.
With the continuous development of gold production and the rapid development of gold resources, since the 1980s, there has been a large increase in argillous gold-bearing oxidized ores. Research on the full sludge cyanide stirring leaching of such ores has been developed, and a cyanide plant with a daily processing capacity of 500 tons of ores has been built in Tuanjiegou Gold Mine, Heilongjiang Province, and put into production in 1983. Since then, the whole slime cyanide gold extraction process has been widely applied, and this method has been used in Henan, Jilin, Hebei, Shaanxi, Inner Mongolia and other places to build gold extraction plants. At the same time, in order to solve the difficulties in the separation of solid and liquid in dense filtration of argilic oxidized ore, in November 1979, Changchun Gold Research Institute began to use the unfiltered carbon pulp process for gold extraction from Tuanjiegou gold Mine ore, which lasted for two years and achieved success. On this basis, in August 1984, the first coal pulp gold extraction plant with a daily processing capacity of 50t ore was built in Linghu Gold Mine, Henan Province by self-design and domestic equipment. A great step forward has been made in the cyanide process of gold extraction. The process of extracting gold from coal slurry has become one of the important methods for the treatment of argillaceous oxidized ores in rock gold mines. Since then, coal pulp mills have been established in Jilin, Henan, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi and other places. At the end of 1984, the Gold Bureau of the Ministry of Metallurgical Industry, in order to promote the application of carbon pulp gold extraction process in China, transplant and digest foreign advanced technology and equipment, cooperated with David McGee Company of the United States, and set up a carbon gold extraction plant with a daily processing capacity of 250t ore (Xitongyu) in Shaanxi Province and 450t(Zhangjiakou) in Zhangjiakou in Hebei Province respectively. According to the investigation, the recovery rate of coal pulp in Zhangjiakou gold mine has reached 93.54%(90.25% in 1988).

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